During the last two decades, scientists have grown increasingly aware that viruses are emerging from the human–animal interface. In particular, respiratory infections are problematic; in early 2003, World Health Organization issued a worldwide alert for a previously unrecognized illness that was subsequently found to be caused by a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus]. In addition to SARS, other respiratory pathogens have also emerged recently, contributing to the high burden of respiratory tract infection-related morbidity and mortality. Among the recently emerged respiratory pathogens are influenza viruses, coronaviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses. As the genesis of these emerging viruses is not well understood and their detection normally occurs after they have crossed over and adapted to man, ideally, strategies for such novel virus detection should include intensive surveillance at the human–animal interface, particularly if one believes the paradigm that many novel emerging zoonotic viruses first circulate in animal populations and occasionally infect man before they fully adapt to man; early detection at the human–animal interface will provide earlier warning. Here, we review recent emerging virus treats for these four groups of viruses.
DUKE (USA) One Health Team News - Issue 5 August 2018
A Closer Look at the Emerging Public Health-Burdening Respiratory Viruses By Jane Fieldhouse, MSc
For several decades, respiratory virus outbreaks have posed threats to the public at the human-animal interface. In this literature review, Duke One Health team members describe four emerging viruses contributing to a high burden of respiratory tract infections. The review suggests a One Health approach to address potential outbreaks caused by these viruses.
A Guidebook for Preventing Zoonotic Enteric Parasites Infections Created by the One Health Researchers in Mongolia
By Amber Barnes, PhD
Zoonotic enteric parasites (ZEP) are a worldwide public health threat. To help the public understand the danger of ZEPs, the One Health Researchers in Mongolia and at Duke University together generated a guidebook to propose ways to prevent ZEP infections.
Respiratory Virus Surveillance Study Conducted at the Duke University Hospital ED By Julie Zemke
Using the 2-stage bioaerosol samplers designed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the research team at Duke finds a spectrum of respiratory viruses in the emergency room setting over the course of five months of the Flu season.
Bass Connections 2018 Team Conducts a Surveillance Study in Sarawak
In Sarawak, Malaysia, members of Duke One Health are working on a cross-cultural collaborative team with researchers from Sibu Hospital and local health authorities to refine surveillance techniques for zoonotic diseases, understand the etiology of such diseases through a One Health perspective, and build the surveillance and diagnostic capacity of local collaborators. Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its tropical climate and anthropogenic factors. Increasing and dynamic interactions between humans, animals, and the environment cause outbreaks in novel respiratory viruses that can be devastating to the human and animal communities. There is an evident need to increase surveillance and epidemiological research regarding these diseases at these interfaces.
With support from Bass Connections, a Duke University-wide initiative aiming to promote collaboration in research across disciplines, the team from Duke One Health includes undergraduate students (Gina Kovalik and David Chen), a medical student (Karen Lin) and master’s students (Jessica Choi and Julie Zemke).
Using cutting-edge bioaerosol sampling devices from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the team is identifying local hubs for novel respiratory pathogen presence and transmission, including swine abattoirs, poultry farms, and schools. By engaging with local stakeholders, including Dr. Toh of Sibu Hospital and Sibu Clinical Research Center, and Mr. Chong of Sibu District Health Office, meaningful partnerships are being formed which may ultimately allow for the creation and maintenance of surveillance and diagnostic capacities throughout Sarawak.
In the photo, Gina Kovalik is examining the NIOSH sampler at a poultry farm during a sampling session.
One Health Training at Duke-NUS in Singapore
From July 23 to July 27, 2018, Professor Greg Gray (Duke University), Dr. Emily Bailey (Duke University), Professor Peter Cowen (North Carolina State University), Dr. Betsy Miranda (The Republic of the Philippines), and Dr Kristen Coleman (Duke-NUS Medical School) conducted a five-day workshop at Duke-NUS in Singapore for scholars from Pakistan and the Philippines. The goal of the workshop was to help the international scholars conduct One Health surveillance for novel respiratory viruses which may emerge in their countries at the human-animal interface. The program included an in-depth epidemiological review and laboratory training in detecting influenza viruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and coronaviruses.
Updates on One Health Team Members
Declaration G20 Meeting of Agriculture Ministers 27-28 July 2018, Buenos Aires, Argentina – See AMR
Tuesday, July 31, 2018.
DeclarationG20 Meeting of Agriculture Ministers 27-28 July 2018, Buenos Aires, Argentina – See AMR
VI - ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (AMR)
31- We emphasize the importance of combating AMR in a "One Health" approach promoting access to affordable and quality antimicrobials, vaccines and diagnostics, based on well-developed national action plans. We recollect the call of the G20 leaders at the 2017 Hamburg Summit to tackle the spread of AMR in humans, animals and the environment.
We will promote interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral approaches, as well as joint actions with the Ministries responsible for human health, animal health, environment and research in order to design national policies and help their implementation by the relevant stakeholders, mainly through "One Health-based" national action plans. Furthermore, we acknowledge the need:
(i) To foster awareness of AMR through dissemination activities and the inclusion in educational curricula for all relevant professions, from initial levels to degree programs.
(ii) To encourage public-private cooperation, supporting the scientific community for the research and development of new antimicrobials as well as new technologies (e.g. rapid diagnostics, vaccines and alternative treatments) that help prevent infection and reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use.
(iii) To promote good practices, preventive measures and health care in order to reduce the need for and optimize the use of antimicrobials in agriculture while striving to restrict it to therapeutic use alone. To foster the prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials, particularly those important for therapeutic use in humans, taking into account WHO's list of critically important antimicrobials for human health and national lists established on the basis of scientific risk assessments carried out taking into account chapter 6.10 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials does not include their use for the promotion of growth in the absence of a risk analysis conducted in accordance with CAC / GL 77-2011.
(iv) To support multi-disciplinary approaches and ongoing implementation of Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance developed by the World Health Organization with the active contribution of the FAO and OIE in the spirit of One Health.
We call on FAO, OIE and WHO to collaborate to improve the prudent use of antimicrobials and on infection prevention to safeguard human and animal health (terrestrial and aquatic), our common food systems, and support scientific collaboration to address knowledge gaps regarding AMR in the environment, in cooperation with other institutions such as UNEP.
Open Access funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
One Health is an effective approach for the management of zoonotic disease in humans, animals and environments. Examples of the management of bacterial zoonoses in Europe and across the globe demonstrate that One Health approaches of international surveillance, information-sharing and appropriate intervention methods are required to successfully prevent and control disease outbreaks in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Additionally, a One Health approach enables effective preparation and response to bioterrorism threats.
Zoonotic Diseases and Phytochemical Medicines for Microbial Infections in Veterinary Science: Current State and Future Perspective
Front. Vet. Sci.
Wednesday, July 25, 2018.
Shin B and Park W (2018) Zoonotic Diseases and Phytochemical Medicines for Microbial Infections in Veterinary Science: Current State and Future Perspective. Front. Vet. Sci. 5:166. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00166
“...The health of humans and animals has been threatened by increasing resistance to antibiotics, environmental pollution, and the development of chronic diseases (1). It is necessary to understand and use the concept of One Health to effectively control and prevent diseases in the human–animal interface. The concept of One Health is currently advancing with the emergence and spread of epizootics, zoonoses, and epidemics, whereas the risks of pandemics have become an increasing critical challenge (2). Antimicrobial agents have seen general use in human and veterinary medicine for >50 years and have shown tremendous health benefits (3). However, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics generate selective evolutionary pressures that increase the chance of survival of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which puts individuals at risk of becoming infected by drug-resistant bacteria (4). This development of antibiotic resistance renders the antimicrobial therapies ineffective, thus posing a serious public health threat. ...”
Pennsylvania Partnerships Strengthen State's Agriculture [includes One Health approach]
Safeguarding the health of Pennsylvania's animals, people and the ... dean, is a strong supporter of the One Health initiative and we welcome him to the team. The administration has embraced One Health, bringing Hoffman, State ...
“... On a much broader scale, the PADLS partnership and the three entities it represents—the state, and two world-class research and teaching institutions— all subscribe to the One Health interdisciplinary approach to animal, human and environmental health. Understanding and addressing the health issues created at the intersection of society, the animal world and the environment is the foundation for One Health.
I commend the leadership of retiring Dean Joan Hendricks, who fostered this approach at PennVet as dean and as a faculty member for more than 30 years. Andrew Hoffman, the new dean, is a strong supporter of the One Health initiative and we welcome him to the team.
The administration has embraced One Health, bringing Hoffman, State Veterinarian David Wolfgang, and Penn State College of Agriculture Dean Rick Roush to the table in a broader coalition that includes the departments of health, environmental protection, conservation and natural resources, and public and private sector human and veterinary health practitioners and researchers. ...”
The past, present and future of Wageningen Bioveterinary Research