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|How to prevent the next Ebola outbreak - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 07/13/2014 - 20:48 - Sunday, July 20, 2014
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 07/13/2014 - 20:48
How to prevent the next Ebola outbreak
By Columnist *Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP Laura H. Kahn
“The Ebola virus has emerged in three West African countries where it had not previously been reported: Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. In early July, health ministers from 11 countries and representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO) and relevant partner organizations met in an emergency two-day meeting in Accra, Ghana, to strategize on containing the worsening crisis. So far, the outbreak is the largest and deadliest since the disease was first recognized in 1976 in northern Zaire. As of July 8, there had been 888 cases and 539 deaths, with a mortality rate over 60 percent. Previous outbreaks, in Central African countries, typically had mortality rates closer to 90 percent. …
“…This is why a One Health approach—an approach that recognizes the connection between human health and animal and environmental health—is so important in Africa. Healthy livestock promote healthy humans. Unfortunately, developing countries have difficulty providing food for their human populations, let alone their livestock. Livestock production accounts for relatively little agricultural output in sub-Saharan Africa. Public health and agriculture experts must work together to improve agriculture and figure out how to meet Africans’ demands for animal proteins in an environmentally sustainable way.”
Please read entire column at http://thebulletin.org/how-prevent-next-ebola-outbreak7312
*International One Health physician leader, Dr. Kahn is a Research Scholar, Program on Science and Global Security’ Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University and Co-Founder, One Health Initiative Autonomous Pro Bono team and website.
|Single One Health example shines during U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Laboratory Accident Reports - July 14, 2014 - Monday, July 14, 2014
*An Editorial News item Viewpoint…
Single One Health example shines during U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Laboratory Accident Reports
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a press release July 11, 2014 outlining their recognition of and plans for remedying disclosures about a recent regrettable anthrax episode. Steps for improving laboratory quality and safety were highlighted http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0711-lab-safety.html.
Noted in the second paragraph of the press release was, “While finalizing this report, CDC leadership was made aware that earlier this year a culture of non-pathogenic avian influenza was unintentionally cross-contaminated at the CDC influenza laboratory with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of influenza and shipped to a BSL-3 select-agent laboratory operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). There were no exposures as a result of that incident. The CDC influenza laboratory is now closed and will not reopen until adequate procedures are put in place. Further investigation, review, and action is underway.” Repeat: “There were no exposures as a result of that incident.”
The New York Times report on July 12, 2014 http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/12/science/cdc-closes-anthrax-and-flu-labs-after-accidents.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&version=HpSum&module=first-column-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0 mentioned this important item describing it as …”In a second accident, disclosed Friday, a C.D.C. lab accidentally contaminated a relatively benign flu sample with a dangerous H5N1 bird flu strain that has killed 386 people since 2003. Fortunately, a United States Agriculture Department laboratory realized that the strain was more dangerous than expected and alerted the C.D.C.”…
This potentially life saving “One Health in Action” by an essentially veterinary medical oriented USDA laboratory issuing an alert to CDC was wisely and promptly accepted; this is instructive. It demonstrates how the One Health (One Medicine) approach—a collaborative, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary paradigm—can and does significantly advance the public’s health. The CDC maintains a One Health Office http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dhcpp/one_health/.
The salient point is that the majority of the dangerous pathogens are zoonotic agents, and thus all biosafety systems and protocols used by policy makers should involve both animal and human scientists thereby leading to a higher standard.
*The One Health Initiative website welcomes other responsible commentaries related to this subject and other One Health issues. Please submit Microsoft word formated copy of 400 -1000 words containing a maximum of 6 references to email@example.com for publication/posting consideration.
|A List of some current [known] “ONE HEALTH” activist University Institutions (USA) - July 11, 2014 - Friday, July 11, 2014
A List of some current [known] “ONE HEALTH” activist University Institutions (USA)
The One Health Initiative team* honors and congratulates each of these 32 One Health [or One Health related] programs (26 states) and—in the true spirit of One Health (One Medicine)—encourages continued collaborations (sharing information) between and among these institutions of higher learning.
Auburn University (USA)
Berry College, Mount Berry, GA (USA)
The University of California Davis (USA)
North Carolina State (NC State) University (USA)
Colorado State University (USA)
Cornell University (USA)
University of Florida (USA)
Fontbonne University, St Louis, Missouri (USA)
University of Georgia (USA)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA)www.vetmed.illinois.edu/onehealth/
Iowa State University (USA)
Kansas State University (USA)
Louisiana State University (USA)
University of Minnesota (USA)
Michigan State University (USA)
Mississippi State University (USA)
University of Missouri (USA)
The Ohio State University (USA)
Oregon State University (USA)
University of Pennsylvania (USA)
Penn State University (USA)
University of Pittsburgh (USA)
A significant One Health translational medicine research approach…Regrowth of injured muscles in mice and humans has been demonstrated by a multidisciplinary research team - “An Acellular Biologic Scaffold Promotes Skeletal Muscle Formation in Mice and Hu – Posted http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/news.php Monday, May 12, 2014
Princeton University (USA)
Purdue University (USA)
Texas A & M University (USA)
Tufts University (USA)
University of Tuskegee (USA)
Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Washington (USA)
Washington State University (USA)
Western University of Health Sciences (USA)
University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA)
Note: List alphabetized according to name of University.
*One Health Initiative Autonomous pro bono Team: Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP ▪ Bruce Kaplan, DVM ▪ Thomas P. Monath, MD ▪ Jack Woodall, PhD ▪ Lisa A. Conti, DVM, MPH
|Seeing the Forest for the Trees: How “One Health” Connects Humans, Animals, and Ecosystems - Monday, July 07, 2014
Published in Environmental Health Perspectives • volume 122 | number 5 | May 2014
Seeing the Forest for the Trees: How “One Health” Connects Humans, Animals, and Ecosystems
Wendee Nicole, MS, Wildlife Ecology
Freelance Writer * Photographer * Bohemian
Adventures Blog: http://bohemianadventures.blogspot.com
Writing Green ~ online class http://www.wendeenicole.com/nature.htm
… “The History of One Health
The connection between animal and human health was recognized even in ancient times; later, nineteenth-century physician Rudolf Virchow coined the term “zoonosis,” writing that “between animal and human medicine there are no dividing lines—nor should there be.” In the late twentieth century epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe first proposed the idea of “One Medicine” encompassing both human and animal health. But medicine has since lost sight of the forest for the trees, now even to the point of focusing on individual leaves, says *Laura Kahn, a physician and research scholar at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.
“A schism has been developing in medicine for decades,” Kahn says: Should it focus strictly on individual care or more broad-based population-level health? Shortly after the anthrax attacks following 9/11, Kahn was reading the veterinary medicine literature and found herself struck by how many diseases of bioterrorism are—like anthrax—zoonotic. “Yet I discovered that [people working in] veterinary and human medicine and agriculture rarely talk to one another,” she says. “We’re trying to deal with new twenty-first-century challenges using outdated twentieth-century paradigms.” …
Please read entire article http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/122-a122/ or http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/122/5/ehp.122-A122.pdf
Provided to One Health Initiative website by:
Susan M. Booker
News Editor, Environmental Health Perspectives
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
*Dr. Kahn is a founding member of the One Health Initiative Autonomous pro bono Team: Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP ▪ Bruce Kaplan, DVM ▪ Thomas P. Monath, MD ▪ Jack Woodall, PhD ▪ Lisa A. Conti, DVM, MPH
|Tackling the ebola epidemic in west Africa: why we need a holistic approach [One Health] - Tuesday, July 01, 2014
A TIMELY serious One Health issue…
Tackling the ebola epidemic in west Africa: why we need a holistic approach
Immediate medical action is not enough to manage the disease. We need cross-sector collaboration and integrated research [One Health]
By Naomi Marks
Guardian Professional, Thursday 19 June 2014 12.18 EDT
As the death toll from ebola in west Africa continues to rise, there is a growing awareness of the threat of diseases transmitted from animals to people.
Ebola, a haemorrhagic fever that causes uncontrolled bleeding, is dramatic in its manifestation and has a case fatality rate of up to 90%. Its emergence can be sudden and unexplained, and, as the recent crisis shows, it can spread across communities and borders with alarming speed.
What the outbreak confirms is that if animal transmitted diseases such as Ebola – known as zoonoses – are to be tackled effectively, the response must go beyond media focus and immediate medical action when an epidemic hits. There is a crucial need for multidisciplinary working over the longer term to gain a holistic understanding of the drivers of these diseases.
This so-called one health approach takes as its premise an understanding that human health, animal health and environmental health are all interlinked. It calls for collaborative efforts between natural and social scientists – including doctors, vets, environmental scientists, geographers and anthropologists – at local, national and international levels.
Such a holistic understanding of health is not new. It is however increasingly gaining traction among those in the field, with the veterinary sector proving to be particularly quick to recognise the benefits of one health. A recent joint research initiative from the Department for International Development (DfID) and the social science, natural environment, medical and bioscience research councils, recognises the benefits of the approach. It aims to fund multidisciplinary research that would, among other benefits, reduce the impact of zoonoses on vulnerable people and their livestock.
When natural and social scientists work together – not just alongside each other, but meaningfully integrate their findings – it can be very productive. However, breaking down the barriers between researchers is one thing. The real challenge is to persuade those with the funds and the power to make cross-sector action happen. One of the issues that urgently needs to be tackled is a reconsideration of funding models to help facilitate cross-sector working.
Over the past 40 years more than 60% of emerging infectious diseases affecting people have had their origin in wildlife or livestock. Many of these zoonoses may cause death more slowly than Ebola, and remain unnoticed by anybody outside the immediate populations affected by them, but their effects are often devastating.
An example is trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by parasites transmitted by the tsetse fly, which affects both humans and animals and is widespread in large parts of Africa. This disease is one of four zoonoses being studied by the multidisciplinary research programme Dynamic drivers of disease in Africa, which is considering the complex links between ecosystems, zoonoses, health and wellbeing. While there were 88 Ebola cases reported in 2012, 50 of them fatal, there are an estimated 30,000-50,000 new cases of trypanosomiasis reported each year, with some 48,000 deaths recorded annually. In addition, the disease is likely to be misdiagnosed as in its early stages it is often confused with malaria and in its later stages with Aids.
Trypanosomiasis is fatal when left untreated and even when it is, it has a prolonged recovery period. As a result, it can ruin lives and livelihoods. The UN Food and Agricultural Organisation says the disease probably threatens rural development and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa more than any other disease.
Like ebola, a multidisciplinary approach to understanding trypanosomiasis is essential if it is to be controlled. Take Zambia, where trypanosomiasis has historically acted as a limitation on human settlement, with families keeping away from fertile but highly tsetse-infested areas. Land pressure is increasingly leading to colonisation of these areas. Land clearance for cash crops such as cotton is also thought to be having an effect on tsetse populations, and thus the spread of the disease.
In addition, there are likely to be social differences in vulnerability to trypanosomiasis, based on gender roles, livelihood patterns and the different ways in which people interact with their environment. These points are aside from other, 'macro' changes, such as climate change and urbanisation, which may be having an effect on tsetse ecology and disease transmission. Thus, it can easily be seen how medical research on its own is insufficient to understand and tackle the disease.
The stories behind a host of other zoonoses – from rift valley fever to ebola – are just as complex. Only multidisciplinary research can help to reveal and unravel their complexity. Without a holistic understanding of all the inter-related factors affecting the emergence, transmission and spread of zoonoses, disease management or elimination will remain beyond our reach.
Naomi Marks works for the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium.
Please see http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2014/jun/19/ebola-multidisciplinary-approach-stop-epidemic.
Permission to post on One Health Initiative website by:
Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium
Institute of Development Studies
Brighton, BN1 9RE
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 915606
* * *
Ebola virus – A One Health History
Eminent virologists, Drs. Karl Johnson (physician) and Fred Murphy (veterinarian) worked at CDC as co-equal investigators, together discovering the etiologic agent of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, the Ebola virus. Dr. Johnson described their “One Health” collaborations:
“Fred Murphy and I collaborated on zoonotic viruses, their pathogenesis, epidemiology, and ecology; initially at great distance but later in daily contact at CDC. Although Ebola virus was perhaps the most notable project, our work over many years truly exemplifies the concept of One World, One Medicine, One Health.
My prayer is that support, both scientific and financial, for the marriage of human and veterinary medicine will grow at an ever expanding rate. The earth requires it.”
Dr. Fred Murphy (veterinarian), Dr. Johnson’s CDC colleague-collaborator in the discovery and identification of the etiologic agent of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, the Ebola virus.
“My recent delving into the foundations of medical and veterinary virology has provided much evidence of common roots and incredible early interplay, much more than we see today. For example, Walter Reed and his colleagues, the discoverers of the first human virus, yellow fever virus, acknowledged the influence of Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch, who had discovered the first virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, a few years earlier.”
|Prominent Pennsylvania (USA) Veterinary Medical School Dean Joins One Health Initiative Team’s Honorary Advisory Board - Tuesday, June 24, 2014
Prominent Pennsylvania (USA) Veterinary Medical School Dean Joins One Health Initiative Team’s Honorary Advisory Board
The One Health Initiative Autonomous pro bono team is delighted to announce that Dr. Joan C. Hendricks http://www.vet.upenn.edu/people/faculty-clinician-search/JOANHENDRICKS, a veterinarian, has graciously accepted becoming a member of the team’s Honorary Advisory Board http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/advBoard.php on June 23, 2014. The OHI Honorary Advisory Board was established in 2010 and has 34 distinguished members from within the U.S. and worldwide.
Dr. Hendricks has been The Gilbert S. Kahn Dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (USA) since 2006. In addition, she is noted for conducting scientific research studying the physiology and anatomy of sleep and collaborating with other researchers at The Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology (CSCN) http://www.med.upenn.edu/sleepctr/ at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine.
In a recently published interview http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/2014-05-08/interviews/qa-joan-hendricks posted on the One Health Initiative website’s NEWS page May 18, 2014, Hendricks was quoted in response to a question …You talk a lot about the One Health concept. What is that, exactly?:
“The school has always had a sense that our job was to advance knowledge to benefit domestic animals and people together. For a long time, we thought of it as treating diseases, so we talked about one medicine, many species. The One Health concept is a little bit more wholistic and progressive, and says that the health of people and animals are interdependent, and interdependent with the wild environment, as well. Veterinary medicine is the only multispecies medical specialty. All veterinarians have a particular connection with the medical school. … It’s a grounding for everything from doing a good job taking care of the animals to also being able to identify ways that they will be healthier, so it’s genetics, nutrition, or the way they’re taking care of training and how the people connect to them, as well. And if you’re talking about animals that serve people by doing some kind of work like the working dogs, or producing food and fiber, you want the animals really healthy because that’s the best outcome for everybody. A component of One Health is linked to food production. It’s a natural thing for a veterinarian to be linked to animal source food because you want the animals healthy. There’s a mission for veterinarians that is in our oath that we serve human society and animals. … It’s really about resolving, making sure that both sides of the equation do well and solving the problems that come about when the interests are in conflict. Connecting to animals is better for people than not. …”
Dr. Hendricks is a longstanding supporter/advocate on the One Health Initiative Supporter list http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/supporters.php and has worked in collaboration with the One Health Initiative team since 2007.
|Infection Ecology and Epidemiology (IEE)—A Significant One Health Journal—by One Health Sweden - Wednesday, June 18, 2014
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology (IEE)—A Significant One Health Journal—by One Health Sweden
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access journal aiming to be a truly international forum for the free exchange of original, cross-disciplinary, high quality papers from researchers in multiple medical and ecological disciplines engaged in describing the complexity of zoonotic infections and what exactly happens at the interface between wild and domestic animals, and humans. Of particular interest at present is the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance.
Target groups include veterinarians, physicians, molecular biologists, ecologists, and environmental chemists with an interest in zoonotic infections.
• Open Access
• Rapid publication process
• Easy archiving
• All contents immediately deposited upon publication in PubMed/PubMed Central
• No charge for colour images, multi-media or other supplementary elements
• No publication fees
All contents freely available at: www.InfectionEcologyandEpidemiology.net
|Ravenswood Media Newsletter Publishes One Health Article - June 2014 Issue #16 - Thursday, June 12, 2014
Ravenswood Media Newsletter Publishes One Health Article
Ravenswood Media, Inc.
410 S. Michigan Ave., #934
Chicago, IL 60604
|One Health Undergraduate Certificate Program Launched at Fontbonne University, St Louis, Missouri (USA) - Tuesday, June 10, 2014
One Health Undergraduate Certificate Program Launched at Fontbonne University, St Louis, Missouri (USA)
Fontbonne University, in partnership with the Institute for Conservation Medicine at the St. Louis Zoological Park, is launching an undergraduate certificate program in One Health. The interdisciplinary approach that One Health takes toward the increasingly complex problems facing all health is perfectly suited for upper-division science students who are interested in having an impact in the world. Information about the certificate program can be found at www.fontbonne.edu/onehealth.
“One Health is a new and rapidly growing field combining human medicine, veterinary medicine and environmental conservation to study the interconnectedness of the world in which we live. As human and animal populations coexist in closer environments, the health and well-being of all become intertwined. Diseases like avian flu and epidemics like colony collapse in bee populations impact both groups. Through Fontbonne’s new certificate, One Health students will take a close look at the intersection of disease transmission, climate change, public health, animal health and more as they explore this increasingly critical field.”
Course requirements: http://www.fontbonne.edu/academics/undergraduate/departments/biologicalphysicalsciences/one-health-certificate/course-requirements/
Provided to One Health Initiative website May 27, 2014 by:
Elizabeth Rayhel, PhD
Associate Professor and Department Chair
Department of Biological and Physical Sciences
St Louis, Missouri (USA)
Dr. Rayhel is a One Health Supporter/advocate http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/supporters.php.
|Kansas State Medical Society Adopts One Health Resolution – 4th in the nation (USA) - Wednesday, June 04, 2014
Kansas State Medical Society Adopts One Health Resolution – 4th in the nation (USA)
June 3, 2014—The Kansas State Medical Society became the 4th state in the United States to adopt a One Health resolution according to Dr. Ralph Richardson, Dean of the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Dr. Larry R. Anderson, a family practice physician from Wellington, Kansas (USA). Anderson also holds a degree in veterinary medicine and served on the American Veterinary Medical Association’s (AVMA) distinguished One Health task force that developed and published an historic comprehensive AVMA “One Health” report http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/taskForce.php.
The Kansas Medical Society House of Delegates adopted their One Health resolution http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications/14-15_OneHealth1.pdf as an action/policy stating, “The Kansas Medical Society, through its endorsement of OneHealth and OneHealth Kansas, supports collaboration between human and veterinary medicine; supports joint educational efforts between human and veterinary medical schools; encourages joint efforts in clinical care through the assessment, treatment and prevention of cross-species disease transmission; supports cross-species disease surveillance in public health and supports joint efforts in the development of new diagnostic methods, medicines and vaccines for the prevention and control of diseases across species.”
The Florida Medical Association (FMA) http://www.flmedical.org/HomePage.aspx was the first state medical association to adopt a One Health resolution entitled “Collaboration between Human Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and the Environmental Sciences (One Health)” http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications/Florida%20Medical%20Association%20Adopted%20One%20Health%20resolution%20July%2031,%202011.pdf on Sunday July 31, 2011. In December 2011 the Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS) www.massmed.org/adopted a landmark policy supporting the importance of collaboration between human medicine, veterinary medicine and the environmental sciences and encouraging dialogue between human medical, veterinary medical, and environmental sciences professionals to identify opportunities to work together in the areas of medical education, clinical care, public health and biomedical research. The Missouri State Medical Association (MSMA) http://www.msma.org/mx/hm.asp?id=home#.U44XrE0U8dU unanimously adopted a One Health Initiative resolution on April 6, 2014 becoming the third state in the United States to do so. Notably, in addition, the Missouri Medicine medical journal published a unique One Health issue May/June 2013 [http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications/One%20Medicine%20Book.pdf].
· The American Medical Association (AMA) adopted an historic One Health resolution in June 2007.
*Ronald M. Davis, MD
Past President, American Medical Association
Past Director, Center for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention. Henry Ford Health System
One Ford Place, 5C
Detroit, Michigan 48202-3450
July 3, 2007 – American Medical Association (AMA)
"I'm delighted that the AMA House of Delegates has approved a resolution calling for increased collaboration between the human and veterinary medical communities and I look forward to seeing a stronger partnership between physicians and veterinarians. Emerging infectious diseases, with the threats of cross-species transmission and pandemics, represent one of many reasons why the human and veterinary medical professions must work more closely together."
- The American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP), a prominent longstanding One Health supportive organization, formally endorsed the One Health Initiative on their website in November 2012 http://www.aaphp.org/OneHealth
The Kansas Medical Society’s One Health resolution adoption was reported to the One Health Initiative website June 3, 2014 by:
Ralph C. Richardson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM (Oncology, Internal Medicine)
College of Veterinary Medicine
101 Trotter Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506-5660
Larry R. Anderson, DVM, MD
Sumner County Family Care Center, PA
Wellington, Kansas (USA)
Drs. Richardson and Anderson are longstanding One Health supporter/advocates http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/supporters.php and both are members of the One Health Initiative team’s Honorary Advisory Board http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/advBoard.php.